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Beam Properties

Highest beam intensities

The higher the intensity of the ion beams, the higher the probability that rare reactions or reaction products can be observed. By providing the highest beam intensities, FAIR opens up new possibilities for scientists in studying secondary beams of unstable nuclei. Researchers will have access to a wide range of new nuclei previously unavailable in the laboratory. For example, the nuclei that play a vital role in explosive nucleosynthesis - the synthesis of the heavy elements in supernova explosions - will become available.



Brilliant beam quality

Ion and antiproton beams of the utmost energy sharpness are necessary in precision experiments to determine the mass of short-lived, unstable nuclei - or to look for new particles associated with the strong interaction. The beam cooling techniques already in operation at the existing facility - stochastic and electron cooling - will therefore continue to play a central role in the new project. Implementing them will be one of the big technological challenges at the planned facility, since the beam intensities and energies are so much higher.



Higher beam energies

The new double-ring synchrotron will also allow significantly higher ion energies compared to the present GSI facility. Thereby highly compressed nuclear matter can be produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions and be probed with forefront detectors at unparalleled intensities. In this way, scientists aim to study the state of matter that existed at the birth of the universe. Such extreme forms of matter may also exist at the center of neutron stars. Moreover, it is expected that a maximum production rate of hadrons with strange quarks will be achieved in the energy region covered by the new facility. Furthermore, the energy threshold for the production of hadrons with charm quarks and of antiprotons will be exceeded. As a consequence, scientists will be able to produce intense antiproton beams.



Highest beam power

In order to create hot, dense plasmas in bulk matter by ion beam irradiation, it is necessary to generate short, high intensity ion pulses. At the new facility, ion pulses with a power of a thousand billion watts can be generated.



Parallel operation

One of the basic arguments in favor of the double ring concept for FAIR is its ability to operate in parallel up to four different scientific programs involving different kinds of ions. This will be achieved by well-coordinated use of the accelerators and storage rings. A particular synergy effect will be created when the entire facility is in use.

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